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Membrane Keyboard vs Mechanical Keyboard: Functions and Classifications

Many readers may not have a deep research on keyboards. When buying keyboards in shopping malls or websites, they often see many different names, such as backlit keyboard, gaming keyboard, multimedia keyboard, wireless keyboard, mechanical keyboard, etc. Be confused. This time, the author will briefly introduce different keyboard trigger types so that everyone can understand these differences.

Functions and classifications are very different

The main function of the keyboard is to input text, so it needs to have a design that can meet the input needs of various countries. The standard keyboard in US is based on the English QWERTY keyboard configuration and adds phonetic symbols and English.

The source of the name of this keyboard is that “QWERTY” is the first 6 letters of the first row in the upper left of the keyboard letter area. This keyboard was designed by Christopher Sholes and will be arranged like this. The main reason is that in the 1870s, when the typewriter was still in use, separating the commonly used letters reduced the squeeze between the linkage rods during typing and avoided malfunctions. Over time, they have become standard English and Latin letters. The standard keyboard configuration.

In terms of size classification, it can be divided into standard size keyboards (also called 100% keyboards) with typing area, editing key area, and numeric keypad, or only A 60% keyboard in the typing area and a 20% keyboard with only numeric keys. Suppose the backlight function classifies it. In that case, it can be divided into a general keyboard without a backlight, or a monochrome backlight with a small light source under the keys, or an adjustable color backlight keyboard with full-color LEDs. According to the connection method, it can be classified into wired and wireless keyboards. Most wired keyboards use a USB interface, while wireless keyboards use Bluetooth or 2.4GHz RF radio wave transmission.

Another common classification is to distinguish by function. In addition to general-purpose keyboards, there are multimedia keyboards with functions such as play, pause, fast forward, and volume control, add macros, shortcut keys, and multi-key simultaneous output in addition to general-purpose keyboards. (NKRO) Gaming keyboard with anti-ghost key.

Most of the keyboards mentioned above can be distinguished directly from the appearance, so it is not too difficult to distinguish each other.  These different mechanisms have different triggering principles, so they will also affect the feel when typing.

It can be clearly distinguished from the appearance that this is a wireless 60% keyboard

It can be clearly distinguished from the appearance that this is a wireless 60% keyboard

Because this keyboard will emit a colorful backlight, it can be judged to be equipped with a full-color LED backlight function.

The shape of gaming keyboards is usually cool, and it is not difficult to see the clues from the diverse function keys.

Membrane Keyboard

The so-called trigger method refers to how the electronic components inside the keyboard detect the way the user presses the key. The most basic and cheap design is the membrane keyboard, which accounts for a large proportion of all keyboards.

Three layers of films form the main structure of the membrane keyboard. The upper and lower layers will leave round conductive contact points at the corresponding positions of the keys. The middle layer is an insulating layer to avoid direct contact between the upper and lower layers and cause short circuits. When the user presses the keys of the keyboard, the upper conductive film will be squeezed and touch the lower conductive film so that the circuit will be connected and the signal that the key has been pressed can be sent out.

Because the production method of this kind of keyboard is simple and the cost is also very low, whether wired or wireless keyboards, about less than $ 100 products, most of them are membrane keyboards.

However, its biggest problem is that it is easier to cause key conflicts due to hardware design defects. The common situation is that when multiple keys are pressed simultaneously, some of the keys are not signaled or not pressed. The button sends out a signal, which may cause game operation problems. Users with gaming needs can seek products that support N-Key Rollover (NKRO) to avoid key conflicts.

The membrane keyboard adopts a design composed of three layers of membranes and judges whether the upper and lower layers are in contact due to pressing the keys as a trigger.

Membrane keyboard can also mix and match different mechanisms.

A rubber cap is laid on the conductive film in general membrane keyboards. When the user presses the button, the rubber cap will bend under force and bounce back when released. The feedback force brought by the process will form the hand feeling when typing. The rubber cap will deteriorate and age over time, making it more and more difficult to press or even fail to spring back, so the durability is relatively poor.

As for the thin keyboards commonly found in notebook computers, rubber caps generally take up too much space; a thinner rubber cap with scissor feet is used instead. The X-shaped scissor mechanism will stabilize the Keycaps and return the keyboard to its original state when rebounding, improving the typing feel.

In addition, some membrane keyboards will add POM guide sleeves between the buttons and the rubber caps so that the feedback force of the membrane mechanism can be more evenly distributed on the keycaps, so when the keycaps are pressed, they will not be like ordinary membrane keyboards. It feels shaking, and the overall stability is high.

The scissor foot structure design commonly used in notebook computers can reduce the thickness of the keyboard while providing a stable feel.

Some membrane keyboards will add POM (Polyoxymethylene) guide sleeves above the rubber caps. If the cross-axis type is adopted, the keycaps for mechanical keyboards can also be replaced.

Mechanical keyboard

As for the titles such as “mechanical axis” or “mechanical keyboard” that we often see on the labels of gaming keyboards, the signal is triggered by an independent mechanical switch under each button, and these parts are called a key shaft.

The mechanical shaft can be divided into a plastic shaft, a spring, and a copper sheet for triggering. When the button is pressed, the plastic shaft will squeeze the copper sheet and let the two copper sheets contact together to send out a signal. When the button is pressed, the spring provides the rebound force. The durability of the spring is higher than that of the rubber cap, the overall life of the keyboard will be longer.

Another mechanical keyboard feature is that the typing feel will vary with different mechanical shafts. Take the mechanical shaft produced by Cherry in Germany as an example. The color of the plastic shaft determines its name. The blue shaft will be very large. The click sound has a sense of paragraph, but the rebound is light. The black shaft has a lower sound when pressed. There is no sense of paragraph, but the rebound is strong. The user can choose different mechanical shafts according to personal preference.

Because gaming players have higher requirements for operating feel, many gaming keyboards will launch a variety of different mechanical axis versions, allowing players to choose the most comfortable version.

After disassembling the mechanical shaft, you can see the shaft cap, shaft center, spring, base, copper sheet and other parts.

High-end exclusive, capacitive keyboard

In addition to the membrane and mechanical keyboards, a more common trigger method is a capacitive keyboard that uses a principle similar to a capacitive switch. Its operating principle is that when the key is pressed, the distance between the two variable electrodes is changed; thereby, a change in the capacitance value is generated, which triggers the keyboard signal.

The biggest advantage of the capacitive keyboard is that the change of capacitance triggers the signal. The whole triggering process does not require any component contact. Unlike membrane or mechanical keyboards, the signal is generated by the contact between the conductive film and the mechanical shaft. Therefore, the capacitive keyboard is Also called a contactless keyboard. The advantage of this design is that the mechanical structure has no actual contact, which makes the operation more sensitive, reduces wear and tear, and extends the service life.

As the saying goes, it’s impossible to have a good horse and not eat the grass. The biggest disadvantage of a capacitive keyboard is that the price is not low. Take the capacitive keyboard launched by Japan Topre as an example; the product is $250 to $500. Everywhere, the cheaper capacitive keyboards of other manufacturers are also approaching $200, which may make players want to try it out.

Topre’s capacitive keyboard is an example. Its rebound force is provided by the internal conical spring, providing a stable operating feel.

Recognize the needs

Choosing a keyboard, first think about their own needs when choosing a keyboard, for example, whether it is mainly for paperwork or should be used for games, and then think about the pursuit of a comfortable feel Or agile operability. What is the demand for other functions?

Take the author’s own needs as an example. Although I play many games, I mainly use the handle and joystick to operate the game. I rarely use the keyboard to operate the game. On the contrary, I need to type for a long time because of my work requirements, and I often need input. Numbers, so the preferred size is a 100% keyboard. As for the typing feel, because I have been accustomed to the feel of a certain membrane keyboard since I was a student, and because of the low price, I buy the same keyboard in the office and at home to work in the most familiar situation.

As for the game as the main consideration, a keyboard with anti-ghost keys and NKRO function can be given priority to avoid affecting operation due to key conflicts. As for the shortcut keys and macros, it depends on the game’s needs. If you need to enter many long strings of commands in a game you often play, you can choose a keyboard with a stronger macro function so that you can enter commands in a shorter time. Seize the opportunity.

But the most important thing is that you still need to go to the store to try and compare the different operating feels of the keyboards. After reading the specifications and introductions on the Internet for a long time, it is better to experience the experience in person so that you will not sell it to yourself. Keyboards with too many different feel habits.


YouTube Premium vs YouTube Music Premium: Should You Upgrade

YouTube has been offering three new services since November 2018.

YouTube’s premium is paid service that YouTube offers where you not only get no ads on YouTube, but you also get background play on your phone.

If other apps are open or your screen is off, you can still listen to the videos. You can also watch YouTube originals. Lastly, you will also be able to download the videos and listen to them or watch them offline when you’re on a plane or subway.

On the flipside, YouTube music is the direct competitor with Spotify and Apple Music, so that’s essentially their music streaming app that uses, you know, a bank of songs that they have and all of the songs listed in the music category on YouTube video.

  •  YouTube Premium
  •  YouTube Music
  •  YouTube Music Premium

The contents and names are similar, so it’s a little difficult to tell the difference. What kind of service is each?

YouTube Premium Features and Costs

YouTube Premium is one of YouTube’s monthly paid services. At the top of the paid plan, you can use all of Google’s paid music services, such as YouTube Music Premium and Google Play Music.

Features of YouTube Premium

YouTube Premium makes it easier to use than YouTube.

 No ads

When I watch a video on YouTube, I get ads regularly, but YouTube Premium users don’t get ads. It will be very comfortable for heavy users.

 Offline playback

You can download the video to your smartphone and watch it later. You can save communication charges by downloading at home with a Wi-Fi connection and watching videos on the go.

You can watch it offline for 30 days.

 Background playback

With the YouTube app on your smartphone, you can use other apps while playing music and voice. You don’t have to replay each time you switch apps.

Also, music and audio will continue to play even if the device goes to sleep. This feature is not available from your browser.

 You can also use YouTube Music Premium and Google Play Music.

YouTube Music Premium is a paid version of YouTube Music and costs 8$ per month (tax included, same below).

Google Play Music is a music app, and the paid plan is 8$ per month.

If you subscribe to YouTube Premium, you can use both as paid plan members.

 You can see YouTube Originals.

YouTube Originals is YouTube original video content. You can’t see YouTube Originals on the free version of YouTube.

YouTube Premium pricing

YouTube Premium costs 11$ per month. However, if you register from the iOS version of the YouTube app, the monthly fee will be 15$. There is a fee if you go through the Apple Store. If you register from a browser or PC instead of the iOS app, you can use it for 11$. There is a one-month free trial period, so please give it a try during that time.

YouTube Music Features and Costs

YouTube Music is a music distribution service provided by YouTube. You can watch music videos on YouTube and the official music videos of musicians. You can also listen to the official distribution of art tracks, which are music-only, without videos.

With the smartphone app “YouTube Music,” you can use it the same way as other all-you-can-listen music services.

Features of YouTube Music

 Ads are included, but it’s free.

You can listen to YouTube Music for free. However, you will occasionally see ads.

 You can also watch the video.

Since it is YouTube, there are official MVs and videos and mix lists such as “I tried to sing” and “I tried to play” created by other users.

The only other all-you-can-listen music service is music, but YouTube is characterized by the fact that you can watch many videos. The channel registration set on YouTube is also valid.

You can also play the music without the video to save on communication charges.

 Recommendations flow one after another.

If you set it to “automatic playback mode,” recommended videos will be played one after another when the created playlist or selected video has finished playing. As a feeling of using it, the one that suits my taste relatively comes out.

In addition, various playlists such as recommended playlists for each genre and current hotlists are proposed.

Features and costs of YouTube Music Premium

YouTube Music Premium is a monthly paid service for YouTube Music. The target video is the same as YouTube Music, but it can be said that it is a plan to enjoy music without stress.

 Features of YouTube Music Premium

The functionality of YouTube Music Premium is similar to YouTube Premium, but only for music videos.

  •  No ads
  •  Offline playback
  •  Background playback
  •  You can use the paid plan of Google Play Music

 YouTube Music Premium pricing

YouTube Music Premium costs 8$ per month. Premium members of Google Play Music have the same price, but if you subscribe to one of them, you can use the other service for free.

This also has a one-month free trial period.

Points when choosing a service

If you subscribe to YouTube Premium, you can also use paid plans for YouTube Music Premium and Google Play Music.

However, even if you subscribe to a paid plan of YouTube Music Premium or Google Play Music, you cannot use YouTube Premium.

If you choose one, we recommend YouTube Premium. The price will be 2$ higher, but all paid plans are available.

Of course, YouTube itself is still free to use.

Choose wisely even for paid services, and enjoy more deals and more!

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How Solar Panels Work: A Quick Guide

Not everybody is aware of just how common solar technology is. They still think of solar power as something that will eventually become common in the future. The truth is, the United States has already produced enough solar power capacity to provide for the needs of more than 12 million American households!

Of course, as solar panel technology becomes more common, people start to learn more about it. How exactly do solar panels work? How does energy from the sun get transformed into electrical energy that you can use for your home?

The governments of many countries allocate colossal amounts of budgetary funds, sponsoring projects aimed at developing solar power plants. Some cities make full use of electricity from the sun. It should be noted that the principle of operation of solar panels for the home is quite complex.

There are a lot of nuances and confusion in the subject of “solar energy.” It is often difficult for beginners to understand all unfamiliar terms at first. But without this, it is unreasonable to engage in solar energy, acquiring equipment for generating “solar” current.

Unknowingly, you can not only choose the wrong panel but also simply burn it when connected or extract too little energy from it.

First, you need to understand the existing types of equipment for solar energy. Solar panels and solar collectors are two fundamentally different devices. Both of them convert the energy of the sun’s rays.

However, the consumer receives electrical energy at the outlet in the first case. In the second, thermal energy in a heated coolant, i.e., solar panels, is used to heat the house.

Read on to learn all about how solar panels work!

What Exactly Are Solar Panels?

The full name for solar panels is actually photovoltaic cells. Photovoltaic cells are what allow solar panels to use sunlight to create electricity.

Some people think that solar panels work based on the heat of the sun. But actually, solar panels that stay cold will still produce electricity if they get sunlight. So how do they work?

One of the most important things to understand about electrical production is that moving electrons will create electricity. That is how generators work. They use a source of power, usually fossil fuel, to create a spinning object. By attaching magnets to that spinning object, they push electrons down a wire, creating electricity.

In the case of solar panels, magnetic fields are created by putting phosphorus into a layer of silicon. Then, boron is added to an adjacent layer in the photovoltaic cell.

If sunlight then strikes this cell, it knocks electrons free. Those electrons are then pushed out of the cell.

When you get down to it, moving electrons is what electricity actually is. Thus, this process creates electricity!

The phenomenon was discovered back in the 19th century and is called the photoelectric effect (photoelectric effect). For its occurrence and maintenance, photoelectric converters (photocells) and semiconductors are necessary by way of functioning.

A semiconductor is a material with an excess or lack of electrons. In a semiconductor element, there are two layers with different conductivity. A layer with extra electrons plays the role of a cathode, a layer with a lack of electrons – an anode. In most modern products, the role of semiconductors is played by silicon wafers, which have the necessary semiconducting properties.

When Solar Panels Appeared

Solar panels were invented a long time ago. The effect of converting light into electricity was first discovered by Alexander Edmond Becquerel in 1842. It took almost a hundred years to create the prototypes.

In 1948, namely on March 25, the Italian photochemist Giacomo Luigi Chemican could do what we now use and develop. In 1958, the technology was first tested in space as a power source for an American satellite called Avangard-1. The satellite was launched on March 17 and May 15 of the same year. Technologies began to be massively applied in different countries almost simultaneously.

How Can Solar Panels Become More Effective?

Most advances in solar technology come down to the ability to put more and more layers into a smaller space. More layers of phosphorus and boron mean more electricity created from the same amount of sunlight. Modern solar panels can save a household hundreds of dollars in electrical costs every year!

The more that you learn about solar panel benefits, the more you might be interested in your own solar panel installation. Talking through the solar panel guide with someone is a great way to find out if solar panels are the right choice for you. To learn more solar panel tips or to find a quality supplier of solar panels for your home, check out

Understand How Solar Panels Work

We hope that you were able to find some of the ideas in this article about how solar panels work to be helpful for you. As the most advanced version of solar technology continues to improve, solar technology will be a more and more common part of our lives. If you don’t learn about it now, you will still learn about it eventually.

Sooner or later, practically everybody will be benefiting from the advantages of solar technology in one way or another. Why not be one of the first people to do so rather than one of the last? To keep up-to-date on the latest developments in business, technology, and more, take a look through our other articles!

How to Calculate Solar Energy

In theory, to calculate the energy of a solar cell, you multiply the watts (of the solar panel) by the number of hours you have been in the sun. For example, if a 20W TV is turned on for two hours, its battery will require 20×2 = 40W per day.

In practice, this method does not work since there are many external factors, such as seasonal differences, climatic, etc.

The British organization, Solar Technology International, gives an example: on an average winter day in the UK, the period of sunshine is only one hour, on summer days – about six hours of sunshine. So, in winter, a 10-watt panel will supply 10-watt power back to the battery (10-watt x 1 = 10 watts). And in summer, a 10-watt panel will provide 60-watt power back to your battery (10-watt x 6 = 60 watts).

Solar cell manufacturing technologies and devices differ mainly in silicon deposition. Most systems use the following types of modules:

  • Polycrystalline type. A budget option for solar panels, suitable as an energy source for a country house. There is a mobile version that you can take on a trip or hike. The disadvantage of this technology is its relatively low (up to 18%) efficiency.
  • Monocrystalline silicon. The panels are more reliable in operation. They have a longer service life (up to 40-50 years), more stable work: they retain up to 70-80% of their capacity during operation. Monocrystalline panels demonstrate efficiency up to 22% (in series); those used in the space industry – up to 38%.

It is also possible to install the following devices:

  • Multicrystalline silicon. Multicrystalline silicon modules are easy to manufacture and have a more affordable cost. The efficiency reaches 15%, the service is designed for 25 years.
  • Thin-film batteries. They can function in diffused light (not direct sunlight), which is a plus in foggy climates or dusty air. This gives an additional 10-15% of the capacity per year (compared with traditional crystalline systems).
  • Amorphous silicon solar panels. The efficiency is low (6-8%), but the generated electricity is the cheapest.
  • Models based on CIGS (semiconductor). The semiconductor contains copper mixed with indium, gallium, and selenium. The production of the battery is based on film technology; the efficiency reaches 15%.
  • Batteries using cadmium tellluide (CdTe). Manufactured using film technology, they are distinguished by an ultrathin semiconductor layer. The efficiency does not exceed 11%, but the generated energy costs 20-30% less than silicon models.

Pros and Cons

The sun’s energy belongs to alternative, renewable sources; its use is considered a progressive method of energy consumption. Its benefits are described as follows:

  • Your monthly electricity bills go down (and ideally disappear). The amount of savings depends on the size of the installed system and the amount of consumption.
  • If the system is installed on your site, you do not need to obtain permission to install the equipment.
  • There is an opportunity to earn money if you produce enough electricity to sell it to the state.
  • Maintenance costs remain very low.
  • Lightweight, trouble-free operation, no noise.
  • Solar energy is a dynamic industry, and the efficiency of solar panels is constantly improving. Modern models can work even with overcast clouds (production is reduced in this case).

People who are skeptical about the installation of solar panels operate on the following facts:

  • The panels require an investment, they need space to install, and the efficiency is quite low even with the best models.
  • The panels can only serve as a source of energy during the day. To use the gifts of green energy around the clock, you need a battery – a buffer storage device, as well as an inverter (a device for converting direct current into alternating current). “Free energy from nature” can hardly be called cheap.
  • Green technology harms nature just as well as the traditional combustion of any fuel. It is worth remembering the peculiarities of production and, especially, disposal of panels and batteries. Its environmental friendliness is a big question.
  • Such an energy source can hardly be called independent. You do not have points of intersection with government networks, but you cannot do without companies that service, repair systems, and sell components.
  • It is not always possible to reach the system’s payback; more often, the technology becomes unprofitable. The point is an inattentive selection of panels, low performance, unacceptable climatic conditions.

Solar panels are an alternative energy source in the form of panels (stationary or flexible, portable). The panels are composed of semiconductor elements capable of converting solar energy into direct current. The peculiarity of solar panels is that they cannot work around the clock; therefore, they need additional equipment: a battery and an inverter (to convert direct current into alternating current).

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How to Create a Strong Password in 10 Easy Steps

A password is the first and fundamental line of defense for your online account. However, when creating and using it, many people commit cardinal mistakes resulting from neglect of basic safety rules.

The password must be as secure as possible to remain a password. Of course, we will never achieve complete security: a resourceful hacker can access an account without a password. But our observance of elementary security rules will significantly complicate the life of thieves and reduce the risk of theft.

If you have a simple password that other people most likely use, then, in fact, you do not have any password. This rule applies to entering the bank and to all other websites on which authorization occurs using a password.

Don’t use popular passwords

Since most users have several accounts that require entering an access code (bank account, email, online store, social networks, etc.), as a rule, they choose the easiest way – they use the same password for all services.

Most users, moreover, use a sequence of letters (or numbers) that are easy to remember when creating a password. These are the habits that cybercriminals use.

Statistically, we can assume that almost half of us use at least one password, which is included in the group of popular passwords.

The most popular are:

  • 123456 – this does not surprise anyone because most sites require at least a 6-digit password, and some users enter what they see on the numeric keypad;
  • Password – or in Russian “password”. For many years it has been one of the leaders among access codes. It is easy to remember and also easy to hack;
  • 12345678 – a more “advanced” version of the 6-digit digital password;
  • qwerty – sounds a little complicated, but this is before the first look at the keyboard;
  • 12345 – “simplified” digital password.

Among the more “advanced” passwords are:

  • abc123 ;
  • zaq12wsx (in different versions, entered from the bottom, top, and more complex: zaq1xsw2 ).

The best solution is to keep passwords as long as possible. However, the longer the password, the more difficult it is to remember and enter it without errors.

Experts say the absolute minimum password is 13 characters .

Fortunately, more and more websites, applications, or systems on which we create accounts have special requirements for the length of the password, which somehow forces users not to make mistakes in this aspect.

Don’t use passwords that are easy to crack

If you are not in the circle of lovers of the most popular passwords, try to make your password a “tough nut to crack” for an attacker.

Banks often force us to use more complex passwords: capital letters, numbers, special characters; however, many of us make it easier for ourselves and create a code according to the formula: Largeletter12! – capital letter at the beginning, numbers, and special characters at the end.

Sometimes we find it difficult to part with passwords that we made some effort to create or have some emotional dimension for us, such as date of birth, names of children, etc. Avoid them – remember, the password is our “watchman”: it should protect your property, and you shouldn’t get involved with it emotionally.

Don’t share your passwords even with relatives

This advice may seem trivial, but it is proven by experience: Never share your passwords, let alone a list of one-time codes, to third parties, even very close ones.

Keep this information hidden if you need to keep your password (don’t hide it – complex passwords are hard to remember).

How to create a complex password that’s hard to crack

In addition to the correct length of the password, its complexity is of great importance. Creating a password using only lowercase letters or numbers narrow down the list of possible combinations that a fraudster must use to crack it.

Therefore, it is best to use different types of characters in one password:

  • lower case
  • uppercase
  • the numbers
  • special characters: exclamation marks, parentheses, question marks, etc.

Separate password for each account

This is one of the most important commandments for creating strong passwords. And one of the most common mistakes users falls into. It’s incredibly convenient to have one password for all your accounts. This fact in itself creates a temptation to act in this way.

Sometimes we also fall into a “mental trap.” When creating an account on a small website, such as the Fan Forum for a game, we believe that it is not essential to create a separate password for it. Moreover, we register for one specific purpose, for example, to get a discount on the game.

Meanwhile, if someone third gets access to this site and collects user data, he will do this not to publish the list of fans of the game on the network, but to check if the stolen passwords match accounts on social networks, online banks, on company websites, etc.

Therefore, it is worth adhering to the principle – one account, one password. This can seem intimidating because every password needs to be thought of and, even worse, remembered. Luckily, we have password managers. These applications generate complex, unique passwords and store them in the memory of a computer, smartphone, and cloud, encrypting them in advance to make them as difficult as possible to crack.

Don’t use easy to remember password

We often come up with passwords so that we can easily remember them. We choose some obvious phrase with which the password is associated, for example, a middle name, a child’s name, the name of the street on which our house is located, a phone number, or the name of a profession.

This is a mistake. Firstly, many users are doing this, which is a serious advantage for scammers. Secondly, such data is easy to obtain if you show a minimum of ingenuity and a little dedication.

Mnemonics make it easy to remember long passwords

Using mnemonics, it’s easy to create unique, complex passwords that won’t leave your head the day after you create your account. Take, for example, a piece of music or poem that has special meaning to us, take your favorite (longer) passage from it and write down the first letters of each word, including the punctuation marks, to make things harder.

Converting letters to numbers with special characters

Adding special characters to the password makes it more secure and harder to crack. Some sites even require this when creating a new account. Have no idea how to include them in your password so that you don’t forget shortly after registration?

The easiest way is to replace the letters with similar special characters or numbers. You can replace the letter “o” with zero. The exclamation point will substitute for the letter “i,” and instead of “a”, you can enter the number 4. There are many possibilities.

Saving passwords in browsers – better not

The most popular web browsers offer to save logins and passwords when we register or log into the site for the first time. Yes, this is very convenient, especially since logins and passwords in browsers can be transferred between devices.

Unfortunately, convenience is convenience, and security is another matter entirely. Storing passwords across browsers is a bad idea. There is only one reason. Cybercriminals have and use special software designed only to steal passwords stored in browsers.

A much better solution is to use the password managers.

 2-Step Verification are better

More and more places on the web and more service applications enable us to use 2-Step Verification. It is based on the fact that entering a username and password when entering the system is not enough to gain access. This is only a partial identity check.

Full Verification requires a second step, which usually boils down to one of the previously selected options, for example:

  • sending the login code via SMS to the phone number specified during registration
  • sending the login code by e-mail to the address specified during registration
  • telephone conversation (most often, the machine gives us an entry code)

This is a severe hindrance to fraudsters. They need to steal the account login and password and gain access to our smartphone. And while 2-step Verification can be a problem and delays the entire login process, for the sake of our security, our data, and resources, it is definitely worth using.

Passwords should be changed from time to time.

Nothing protects us online like cyclical password changes. Do you need to do with all the accounts you’ve created over the years of using the Internet? Well, that would be nice, but the fact is, we would be spending a lot of time doing this regularly.

This is why you can focus on the most important places – online banking, email, social media accounts, places related to work or services (for example, on Steam, where passwords are stolen and resold to other users all the time).

How often do you need to change passwords to new ones? Experts recommend doing this at least once a month. Yes, we understand that your creativity at coming up with new passwords can quickly dry up with this frequency. Therefore, we again recommend using password managers, where we can also find password generators.

Your best defense against cybercriminals is your mind

Cybercriminals have tools that can hack the security of the largest corporations, governments, and nongovernmental organizations. However, the primary attack strategy is to find weaknesses. More often than not, these weaknesses are. People their naivety, ignorance, irresponsibility.

Sometimes, to maintain digital security, you do not need the most modern security systems for computer networks, but you need consistent work with basic things. One of its elements is best practices related to password generation, storage, and periodic replacement.

Account access is constantly being stolen. And if we were asked to predict the frequency of their thefts in the coming years, we are sure that it will not decrease. Therefore, if you are learning from mistakes, it is imperative not to learn from your own. This can be expensive.

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